Redesigning Schools to Extend Excellent Teachers’ Reach

How can every student have excellent teachers every year? Extending the reach of excellent teachers requires schools to redesign jobs, use technology in new ways, or both.

 Here we present new school models to get the job done.

The models must meet our Opportunity Culture Principles, for whole schools or individual courses.

Opportunity Culture Principles

Teams of teachers and school leaders must choose and tailor models to:

  1. Reach more students with excellent teachers and their teams
  2. Pay teachers more for extending their reach
  3. Fund pay within regular budgets
  4. Provide protected in-school time and clarity about how to use it for planning, collaboration, and development
  5. Match authority and accountability to each person’s responsibilities

By making the right changes, schools can provide all teachers with career advancement opportunities.

Schools may find an Opportunity Culture, with its enhanced career and pay opportunities, especially effective for recruiting and retaining excellent teachers and teams in hard-to-staff schools and positions, such as STEM teaching, that students sorely need.

The models focus on extending excellent teachers’ reach in ways that free teachers’ time, create clear accountability and authority for teachers, and powerfully reward teachers by paying them far more for achieving excellence, alone or in teams.

Most models involve team-teaching that lets all teachers earn more and gain collaboration and development time during school hours, with leadership opportunities for excellent teachers that let them stay in the classroom—so that good and great teachers work together to bring excellent instruction to all students. Some models also make part-time work, reduced hours, and flexible schedules possible.

We organized the models around two key dimensions:

  • Where is the teacher?
    • In person, teaching face to face in a school and/or leading other teachers; or
    • Remotely located, with on-site monitors’ help. Remotely located teachers use webcams, online whiteboards, email, and other methods that let teachers communicate personally with students, at times convenient for all.
  • How is the teacher’s reach extended to more students? Excellent teachers can:
    • Specialize in the most crucial subjects and most difficult teaching roles
    • Swap technology—online digital instruction—for some of their teaching time, enough time that excellent teachers can teach more students
    • Lead other teachers, and co-teach with them, with authority to select, assign roles, develop, and evaluate the team.
    • Have larger classes (within reason, and by a teacher’s choice). Most schools will not want to do this unless in combination with other models that can simultaneously decrease instructional group sizes.

Schools can combine models to make the best use of excellent teachers’ time and to put teachers in roles that are best for each person.

Changing schools this way sets up a virtuous cycle of selectivity, opportunity, and pay that leads to excellent outcomes for students.

Some of these models might look familiar. Some schools are already trying them, and we have begun a series of case studies. Please help us improve the models by sharing your stories on our Feedback page. See our complete set of tools for school design teams.

Opportunity Culture School Model Overview Table:
How Do Excellent Teachers Reach More Students & Help Peers Succeed?

Click on any model name in the table to link to more information about that model, or scroll down the list of models below the table to read brief model descriptions. Click on a category name in the left side of the table to jump to more detail about that category. You can also view a PDF version of this table or this page.

In-Person
The teacher accountable for learning is in the school, teaching face to face, and may lead peers.
Remote
In schools with shortages, the teacher accountable for learning uses technology to teach and connect with students, and may lead peers. An in-person monitor is required.
Multi-Classroom Leadership
Excellent teacher leads a teaching team and is accountable for all students.

Multi-Classroom Leadership (In-Person Pods)

Multi-Teacher Leadership (Remote Pods)

Specialization
Excellent teachers specialize in high-priority subjects and roles, with new paraprofessional support.

Subject Specialization | Role Specialization

Subject Specialization | Role Specialization

Class-Size Changes
Excellent teachers teach larger classes, within limits and by choice, ideally without increasing instructional group size.

Class-Size Increases | Class-Size Shifting

Class-Size Increases | Class-Size Shifting

Time-Technology Swaps
Digital instruction or offline skill practice and projects save teachers time to teach more students and collaborate. Students spend an hour (elementary) or more (secondary) daily in paraprofessional-supervised learning.

In-Person Swaps

  • Rotation*: Alternating teacher and digital or other instruction on a fixed schedule
  • Flex*: Digital, small-group, and large-group learning time individualized

Remote Swaps

  • Rotation*: Alternating remote teacher and digital or other instruction on a fixed schedule
  • Flex*: Digital, small-group, and large-group learning time individualized
Combinations
  • Schools committed to reaching every student in every valued subject with the excellent teachers will use Multi-Combinations
  • Combinations let schools optimize current students’ learning and teachers’ development on the job.

Note: Shaded items may require new technology. Students are in school buildings in all models in this table.
*The terms Rotation and Flex are widely used to describe “blended learning” models. 
© 2012 Public Impact, Chapel Hill, NC. Copying and sharing all or part of this web page permitted with this line and link to OpportunityCulture.org.

 

When Learning is Outside the School: Community-Based Organizations and Home

In the table above, all of the models assume that students are physically located in schools. But in other cases, students may be located elsewhere.  Community-based organizations may host dropout recovery and other programs. And more students every year are learning at home. These students need excellent teachers in charge of their learning, too. So, here we also include brief descriptions of four models for combining excellent remote teachers, digital instruction, and parents or community organization staff members as monitors.

School Model Descriptions

These are brief descriptions of models for extending the reach of excellent teachers to more students, for more pay, within budget. Scroll down the list, or click on the models that interest you in the model table above. You can also open a PDF version of Model Summaries.

We have included with most model definitions an estimate of the additional percentage of students that excellent teachers may reach within our five principles, expressed as a “Reach Effect.” For example, if a calculus teacher reaches double the number of students by having students learn online during class time every other day while she works with another group of students on personalized and enriched learning, the Reach Effect is 100%. If an elementary teacher agrees to take 30 students in a class, rather than the U.S. average of 24, then the Reach Effect is 25%, or ((30 – 24) ÷ 24).

Estimates of how many more students can be reached effectively are based on analysis of teacher time data from the National Center for Education Statistics, consideration of planning time required, feasible student loads, and class sizes in educationally high-performing nations.

These estimates are to provide ranges, and they do not apply equally to all teachers or schools. School design teams will need to make choices about the group, class, and total student load sizes to fit the teachers and students involved.

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Multi-Classroom Leadership

School-based or remotely located instructional teams report to excellent teachers with leadership skills. The teacher-leaders are fully accountable for multiple classrooms, and they both teach and lead other team members, who use the leader’s methods and tools in varying roles the leader assigns.

In-Person Models:

Multi-Classroom LeadershipMulti-Classroom Leadership (In-Person Pods)

Excellent teachers with leadership competencies lead teams of other teachers to meet the leaders’ standards of excellence. Teachers, including the teacher-leader, play instructional roles assigned by the leader and use the leader’s methods and tools. The teacher-leader chooses, evaluates, and develops team members, establishing each person’s roles and goals at least annually. The leader facilitates team collaboration and planning. (S)he, with the principal, dismisses team members when necessary. The leader earns more than the others—funded by the reduction of non-classroom specialists, lower pay for others with narrower instructional roles and fewer work hours, and in some cases a reduction of team size. The leader is accountable for team success and all students’ learning. Reach Effect: approximately 100%–400% more students reached by excellent teachers in charge; more with larger spans.

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Remote Models:

Multi-Teacher Leadership (Remote Pods)

Excellent teachers with leadership competencies lead teams of other teachers to meet the leaders’ standards of excellence. Team members may be co-located or remote. In-person and remote teachers (using webcams or similar tools), including the teacher-leader, play instructional roles assigned by the leader and use the leader’s methods and tools. The teacher-leader chooses, evaluates, and develops team members, establishing each person’s roles and goals at least annually. The leader facilitates team collaboration and planning. A remote teacher-leader may direct multiple teams at different sites. The leader earns more than the others—funded by the reduction of non-classroom specialists, lower pay for others with narrower instructional roles and fewer work hours, and in some cases a reduction of team size. The leader is accountable for team success and all students’ learning. Reach Effect: up to approximately 400% more students reached with excellent teachers in charge.

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Specialization

Excellent teachers specialize in high-priority subjects and the most crucial, challenging roles, focusing on the subjects and instructional roles in which each excels.

In-Person Models:

Subject Specialization (In-Person Teacher)

Elementary Subject Specialization

The best teachers teach one or two priority subjects, leaving other subjects and many noninstructional tasks to teammates. A likely combination would be subject pairs: 1) math/science and 2) language arts/social studies. A third set of adults—learning coaches, teaching assistants, or other designated adults—supervise students during homeroom, other unstructured time, and transitions, and they cover most administrative work and other noninstructional tasks. All collaborate as a team to ensure student learning and development. For example, elementary teachers now spend about 8 of their nearly 32 instructional hours weekly on math and science combined. An excellent teacher could teach three times the current student load and retain up to 8 school-day planning hours weekly. A second set of teachers could teach language arts and social studies, on which teachers now spend about 14 hours weekly, retaining up to 4 planning hours weekly. Higher pay for excellent teachers can be funded by lower pay for the learning coaches/assistants and the elimination of some non-classroom instructional specialist positions. Reach Effect: approximately 100%–300% more students reached with excellent teachers. Note: Subjects for specialization will vary based on school priorities and available teachers; the math/science and language arts/social studies pairs are just one example.

Role Specialization (In-Person Teacher)

Role specialization happens in the context of other models, most easily under Multi-Classroom Leadership (there is no single career path for a “role specialist”). The goal is to focus excellent teachers’ time on the instructional roles that are most challenging and critical for student success, and on high-value noninstructional work related to student outcomes. In addition, focusing excellent teachers’ time on the instructional roles in which each excels may magnify their effectiveness. All of these role changes require that other staff members or technological tools perform the instructional and noninstructional roles that excellent teachers no longer play. If enough excellent teacher time is saved, then these teachers can teach more students. Role specialization is already incorporated into other reach models, including Multi-Classroom Leadership, Time-Technology Swaps, and Subject Specialization. In these models, different teacher and paraprofessional team members play differing roles—not just teaching different subjects—to produce the best outcomes for the most students. Reach Effects: will vary widely. Examples include:

  • Excellent teachers use their time exclusively for academic instruction and planning. This is enabled by having other team members cover noninstructional duties that do not affect student learning, and by using time-saving technology.
  • Excellent teachers focus on the most critical, challenging instructional roles in which each excels. Other team members perform remaining instructional duties. Instructional roles include (among others): planning instruction, lecturing, motivating, monitoring student progress, reviewing student work, providing feedback, diagnosing next-step student needs, monitoring students’ independent work, leading individual and small-group instruction, grading, providing instructional administrative work, addressing social/emotional/ behavioral learning barriers, and communicating with parents.

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Remote Models:

Subject Specialization (Remote Teacher)

Remotely located excellent teachers teach priority subjects, leaving other subjects and many noninstructional tasks to other teachers and staff. On-site monitors selected for their classroom management and social/emotional development skills manage student time and behavior, supervise recess and lunch, and perform all in-person supervisory and administrative duties; they may provide academic support, and they provide vital information about students’ social, emotional, and behavioral concerns to the remote teachers.

  • Elementary. A likely approach would be having the best remote teachers teach one of two core subject pairs: math/science or language arts/social studies. For example, excellent remote math teachers relieved of on-site duties could teach four times the current student load within standard work hours, using all noninstructional time for the planning and follow-up that are essential to instruction.
  • Secondary. Excellent single-course remote teachers may teach students in multiple locations, using a combination of synchronous instruction (e.g., using webcams, online whiteboards) and asynchronous, personalized communications (e.g., email for feedback on student work, answering students’ questions).

Higher pay for the excellent remote teachers is funded by lower pay for the on-site paraprofessional monitors and the elimination of some non-classroom instructional specialist positions in subjects taught by the excellent remote teachers. Reach Effect: approximately 100%–400% more students reached with excellent teachers. Note: Subjects for specialization will vary based on school priorities and available teachers; the math/science and language arts/social studies pairs are just one example.

Role Specialization (Remote Teacher)

Remote role specialization is the same as in-person, except that the excellent remote teachers collaborate with in-person staff (or other remote instructors). An in-person adult is responsible for all activities unrelated to instruction and for monitoring student time and behavior.

Role specialization happens in the context of other models, most easily under Multi-Classroom Leadership (there is no single career path for a “role specialist”). The goal is to focus excellent teachers’ time on the instructional roles that are most challenging and critical for success, and on high-value noninstructional work related to student outcomes. In addition, focusing excellent teachers’ time on the instructional roles in which each excels may magnify their effectiveness. All of these role changes require that other staff members or technological tools perform the instructional and noninstructional roles that excellent teachers no longer play. If enough excellent teacher time is saved, then these teachers can teach more students. Role specialization is already incorporated into other reach models (with both in-person and remotely located teachers), including Multi-Classroom Leadership, Time-Technology Swaps, and Subject Specialization. In these models, different teacher and paraprofessional team members play differing roles—not just teaching different subjects—to produce the best outcomes for the most students. Reach Effects: will vary widely. Examples include:

  • Excellent teachers use their time exclusively for academic instruction and planning. This is enabled by having other team members cover noninstructional duties that do not affect student learning, and by using time-saving technology.
  • Excellent teachers focus on the most critical, challenging instructional roles in which each excels. Other team members perform remaining instructional duties. Instructional roles include (among others): planning instruction, lecturing, motivating, monitoring student progress, reviewing student work, providing feedback, diagnosing next-step student needs, monitoring students’ independent work, leading individual and small-group instruction, grading, providing instructional administrative work, addressing social/emotional/ behavioral learning barriers, and communicating with parents.

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Class-Size Changes

Excellent teachers choose to teach larger classes, within limits appropriate for each teacher, the students, and each school.

Educationally high-performing nations’ class sizes vary from averages of about 19 to 35 students. OECD-reporting nations with graduation rates over 90% have average class sizes of 27 students. Current U.S. classrooms average 24 students. In these models, we limit class sizes to 35. Many schools would choose different limits, depending on the teachers and students involved.

In-Person Models:

Class-Size IncreasesClass-Size Increases (In-Person Teacher)

Schools increase the size of all classes for which willing, excellent in-person teachers are available, without reducing other class sizes. Over time, or immediately in new schools, one out of every four or more classes is eliminated, through attrition or other means, and pay is increased for remaining teachers. In some schools, accepting more students may allow immediate raises for excellent teachers with larger classes, paid for through existing per-pupil funds. Reach Effect: approximately 10%–40% more students reached with excellent teachers.

Class-Size Shifting (In-Person Teacher)

In selected subjects and classrooms, students shift into classes of teachers who have consistently achieved excellent outcomes. These teachers agree to increase their class sizes in exchange for higher pay. Students shift from solid teachers and novice teachers, who have not yet demonstrated consistent excellence. These teachers earn less but have proportionally smaller classes in which they may produce better student outcomes and continue to develop. Some teachers might choose smaller classes for lower pay. The extended reach of excellent teachers and smaller classes for some other teachers will lessen the need for non-classroom instructional specialists, freeing funds to pay excellent teachers more. Class sizes stay within limits indicated by educationally high-performing nations. Reach Effect: approximately 10%–40% more students reached with excellent teachers.

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Remote Models:

Class-Size Increases (Remote Teacher)

In schools without enough excellent teachers working in person, excellent remote teachers teach students in larger-than-usual group sizes (staying within reasonable class-size limits), and schools pay these excellent teachers more. Students may be co-located (e.g., interacting as a group with a live teacher on large screen with two-way cameras) or not (e.g., interacting from multiple schools with a live teacher using webcams or online whiteboards). In-person monitors are required. Reach Effect: approximately 10%–40% more students reached with excellent teachers.

Class-Size Shifting (Remote Teacher)

In schools without enough excellent teachers working in person, students shift from other teachers’ classrooms into classes of willing excellent teachers who are teaching remotely (staying within reasonable class-size limits), and schools pay these excellent teachers more. Other teachers, whether teaching on site or remotely, have proportionally smaller classes and, as new people enter under new employment arrangements, lower pay. This model can be used to induct newer in-person or remote teachers with smaller classes, or simply to maximize the number of students benefiting from available, excellent remote teachers. In-person monitors are required. Reach Effect: approximately 10%–40% more students reached with excellent teachers.

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Time-Technology Swaps

Time-Technology SwapsDigital instruction replaces enough excellent in-person or remotely located teacher time that these teachers can teach more students. Students are likely to use digital instruction for 25% or more of learning time. The swap may be on a fixed schedule (Rotation) or a flexible one (Flex) determined by students’ changing needs:

Rotation: Alternating digital and live-teacher learning time (with teacher in-person or remote) on a fixed schedule. Digital learning time is likely to be 25%–50% of in-school learning time.

Flex: Digital, small-group, and large-group learning time individualized for each student and frequently changing. Digital learning time may be 50% or more of in-school learning time.

The terms Rotation and Flex are widely used to describe “blended learning” models. See Innosight Institute’s The Rise of K-12 Blended Learning.

Time-Technology Swaps (In-Person Teacher):

Rotation: Students spend approximately 25%–50% of their in-school time engaged in personalized digital learning, replacing a portion of excellent, in-person teachers’ whole-group and lecture instruction chosen by the teachers. Students rotate on a fixed schedule between digital instruction and face-to-face learning with the teacher. To extend their reach, excellent teachers use freed time to teach additional classes, focusing primarily on personalized and enriched portions of instruction. During digital learning time, lab monitors supervise students, and tutors may work with students individually and in small groups. Teachers, monitors, and others collaborate as a team. Reach Effects: Excellent elementary teachers reach approximately 25%–100% more students, varying with the percentage of digital instruction time. Excellent secondary teachers reach up to 100% more students. Secondary teachers may extend their reach in any number of class periods, ranging from just one class to all of their classes, with limits based on the feasible student load and the percentage of students’ digital time.

Flex: Most students spend half or more of their in-school time engaged with digital learning, replacing a portion of excellent, in-person teachers’ whole-group and other instruction chosen by the teacher. Excellent teachers pull out students in frequently changing, flexible groupings for project-based learning, seminars, small-group instruction, and tutoring. The amount and type of face-to-face instruction varies by day and student. Teachers differentiate pull-out instruction based on individual student needs, which they assess through reviewing both student work and data generated from digital assessments. Teachers may be assisted by tutors and paraprofessional lab monitors. Teachers collaborate with other teachers, tutors, and paraprofessional teammates across classes, subjects, and grades. This model may be most useful at the secondary level, when more students are self-directed, and more screen time is developmentally appropriate. Reach Effect: approximately 50%–100% more students reached per excellent teacher; far more if combined with subject specialization at the elementary level. Models with lower reach effects may reserve extra planning time for teachers who increase their student loads.

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Time-Technology Swaps (Remote Teacher):

Remote Rotation: When not enough excellent teachers are available in person for a school or specific subjects, excellent, remotely located teachers interact directly with students, though not in person, and are fully responsible for student learning in designated subjects. Students alternate between learning with the remotely located teachers and digital learning on a prescribed schedule. Students spend about 25%–50% of their instructional time learning through personalized digital instruction, enabling fewer, more-effective remote teachers to reach a greater number of students with personalized and enriched portions of their instruction. Excellent teachers design their live lessons based on student needs determined in part by using data generated from digital assessments. Remote teachers may teach students located down the hall or across the nation. On-site monitors manage student time and behavior, supervise recess and lunch, and perform all in-person supervisory and administrative duties; they may provide academic support, and they provide vital information about students’ social, emotional, and behavioral concerns to the remote teachers. Schools can use these models for single courses, subjects, grades, or whole schools. Specific uses may differ in elementary and secondary schools. Reach Effect: approximately 33%–500% more students per excellent teacher, and teachers can teach students in any location.

Remote Flex: When not enough excellent teachers are available in person for a school or specific subjects, excellent, remotely located teachers interact directly with students, though not in person, and are fully responsible for student learning in designated subjects. Students alternate between learning with the remotely located teachers and digital learning on a varying schedule according to the needs of each student, who may be in one school or various schools. Most students spend 50% or more of their instructional time learning through personalized digital instruction, enabling fewer, more-effective remote teachers to reach a greater number of students with personalized and enriched portions of their instruction. Teachers also vary student groupings for teacher-led instruction—such as seminars, whole-group, small-group, or individual instruction, and project facilitation—based on individual student needs determined in part by using data generated from digital assessments. Remotely located teachers are accountable for learning outcomes in designated subjects. Remote teachers are assisted by on-site monitors who manage student time and behavior and perform all in-person supervisory and administrative duties; they may provide academic support, and they provide vital information about students’ social, emotional, and behavioral concerns to the remote teachers. Reach Effect: approximately 50%–200% increase, if digital learning time is limited to two-thirds of student time.

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Combinations

Likely Model Combinations

  • Schools committed to reaching every student in every valued subject with excellent teachers will use Multi-Combinations
  • Combinations let schools optimize current students’ learning and teachers’ development on the job.

Additional Terms:

Homework Flipping:
Knowledge and skill-focused digital instruction is given as homework. Data reports inform teachers about students’ at-home learning. At school, teachers may then focus more time on personalized, enriched portions of instruction. Note: Flipping models today are not necessarily used to help already-excellent teachers reach more students, as described here.


Multi-Combinations: Multi-Combination reach models use multiple models (Class-Size Changes, Specialization, Time-Technology Swaps, and Multi-Classroom Leadership) and modes (in-person, remote, and digital) to extend the reach of excellent teachers to larger numbers of students. Multi-Combinations are best for schools with severe shortages of excellent in-person teachers and/or a high commitment to reaching every student with excellent teachers in every grade and subject by any means possible.

Examples:

Flipping + Time-Technology Swaps. Excellent teachers assign digital instruction on basic knowledge and skills as homework. At school, students spend 25% or more of their day on digital instruction, projects, and tutoring with paraprofessionals. As a result, the time excellent teachers spend with students can be focused largely on personalized, enriched in-person instruction on a fixed, rotating schedule (Rotation) or frequently changing, flexible groupings (Flex). Reach Effects: approximately 33%–200% more students reached by excellent in-person teachers (up to 400% more, with subject specialization). Note: Flipping models today are not necessarily used to help already-excellent teachers reach more students, as described here.

Specialization + Time-Technology Swaps. Combining Subject Specialization with Rotation or Flex models, excellent teachers focusing on subject specialties (math/science; language arts/social studies) teach students on a fixed, rotating schedule (Rotation) or frequently changing, flexible groupings (Flex). Students spend 25% or more of in-school time engaged in a combination of digital learning, project-based learning, and tutoring with paraprofessionals. Reach Effects: approximately 100%–400% more students reached by excellent teachers.

Remote Specialization + Time-Technology Swaps. Excellent remote teachers focusing on subject specialties (math/science; language arts/social studies) teach students on a fixed, rotating schedule (Rotation) or frequently changing, flexible groupings (Flex). The teachers teach live, using large-screen video, computer screen webcams, or online whiteboards, and may have personalized follow-up with students via email or other means. Students may be in one school location or many. Students also spend 25% or more of their in-school time engaged in a combination of digital learning, project-based learning, and tutoring with on-site paraprofessionals. On-site staff members also manage student time and behavior, supervise recess and lunch, and perform all in-person supervisory and administrative duties. They also provide vital information about students’ social, emotional, and behavioral concerns to the remote teachers. Reach Effects: Combining remote specialization with time-technology swaps lets excellent teachers reach approximately 100%–500% more students.

Multi-Classroom Leadership (“Pods”) + Time-Technology Swaps. Using either a Rotation or Flex model, one excellent teacher-leader who has leadership competencies leads a team of multiple classroom teachers and paraprofessionals. Digital instruction (supervised by a monitor) replaces a portion of in-person teachers’ instructional time, such as whole-group instruction and lectures, to enable fewer, more effective in-person teachers to reach a greater number of students with the personalized and enriched portions of their instruction. This model enables paying the teacher-leader more, and/or saving more money, and/or reserving more time for collaborative planning or extended learning time than a multi-class leadership model alone, because the wages of digital lab monitors are less than that of most other instructional staff. Reach Effect: Up to approximately 400% more students reached per excellent teacher.

Remote Flipping + Time-Technology Swaps. Remote excellent teachers assign digital instruction on basic knowledge and skills as homework. At school, students spend 25% or more of their day on digital instruction, projects, and tutoring with paraprofessionals. As a result, the time remote excellent teachers spend with students can be focused largely on personalized, enriched instruction on a fixed, rotating schedule (Rotation) or frequently changing, flexible groupings (Flex). The teachers teach live, using large-screen video, computer screen webcams, or online whiteboards, and may have personalized follow-up with students via email or other means. On-site paraprofessionals monitor remote and digital instruction. They manage student time and behavior, supervise recess and lunch, and perform all in-person supervisory and administrative duties. They also provide vital information about students’ social, emotional, and behavioral concerns to the remote teachers. Reach Effects: approximately 33%–300% more students reached by excellent teachers remotely (up to 500% more, with subject specialization). Note: Flipping models today are not necessarily used to help already-excellent teachers reach more students, as described here.

Multi-Combination Example: Excellent teachers with leadership competencies lead teams of subject and role specialists, replace a portion of teaching time with digital instruction, and provide excellent remote teachers in subjects for which an excellent in-person teacher is unavailable, while also using time-saving technology tools for grouping students, grading, and the like. Reach Effect: Potentially coverage of all students by excellent teachers in all chosen subjects—approximately a 400% increase in reach, or more in some grade levels and subjects.

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Community-Based Organization (CBO)-Monitored and Parent-Monitored

CBO-Monitored: Students spend the school day at the facility of a community-based organization, receiving instruction from remote, excellent teachers.

CBO-Monitored Remote. Students receive instruction from excellent remote teachers on a schedule determined and monitored by staff at a community-based organization. Remote teachers teach at scheduled times, using webcams, online whiteboards, or similar technology. They may teach students in one or multiple locations simultaneously, and they may assign, review, and discuss work with individuals or groups of students, synchronously or asynchronously (e.g., via email). The remote teachers are the adults accountable for learning outcomes in each subject they teach. On-site CBO monitors manage student time and behavior, supervise recess and lunch, and perform all in-person supervisory and administrative duties; they may provide academic support, and they share vital information about students’ social, emotional, and behavioral concerns with the accountable, remote teachers. Informal educators who are nonetheless experts may provide instruction in some subjects best taught on-site, such as art and music. The CBO as an organization is accountable for overall learning outcomes, just as a school would be, and thus bears responsibility for choosing excellent remote teachers.

CBO-Monitored Remote + Digital Instruction. Students receive instruction from excellent remote teachers on a schedule determined and monitored by staff at a community-based organization. The remote teachers teach at scheduled times, using webcams, online whiteboards, or similar technology. They may teach students in one or multiple locations simultaneously, and they may assign, review, and discuss work with individuals or groups of students, synchronously or asynchronously (e.g., via email). In addition, digital instruction replaces a substantial portion (at least 25%) of instructional time, such as basic knowledge and skill instruction, enabling fewer, better remote teachers to reach more students with personalized and enriched portions of their instruction. The remote teachers are the adults accountable for learning outcomes in each subject they teach. On-site CBO monitors manage student time and behavior, supervise recess and lunch, and perform all in-person supervisory and administrative duties; they may provide academic support, and they share vital information about students’ social, emotional, and behavioral concerns with the accountable, remote teachers. Informal educators who are nonetheless experts may provide instruction in some subjects best taught on-site, such as art and music. Reach Effect: 33%–500% more students per excellent teacher; teachers can teach students in any location, while students may spend their days in environments suitable to their individual needs.

Parent-Monitored:

Parent-Monitored Remote. Students receive instruction from excellent, remote teachers on a schedule determined and monitored by a parent, using webcams, online whiteboards, or similar technology. Teachers teach at times as scheduled to one or many students in multiple locations simultaneously, or they asynchronously assign, review, and discuss work with individuals or groups of students. Parents are the adults accountable for choosing and changing remote (and complementary digital) instruction to meet their children’s needs. Parents are also responsible for other aspects of each child’s development and time-management. Remote teachers are able to teach more students than in a site-based position, because they do not have as many administrative duties and can teach outside of typical school hours. Teachers can reach students living anywhere.

Parent-Monitored Remote + Digital Instruction. Students use digital instruction on a schedule determined and monitored by an excellent, remotely located teacher, who schedules in cooperation with the parent. The remote teachers are the adults accountable for choosing and changing digital instruction in each assigned subject to meet their students’ needs. Parents are responsible for managing behavior, time-management, and other aspects of each child’s development. The remote teachers are able to teach more students because of the time freed when students are using digital instruction and their reduced administrative duties because they are not on site.

Note: Parent-monitored models fit Public Impact’s reach extension guidelines only loosely, because parents are not part of an employed team that can be held accountable to remote teachers or an organization that is accountable for learning outcomes. We include these models here because of the growing use of digital learning in homeschooling, to elevate the potential of pairing excellent, remotely located teachers with parents as monitors.

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Open a PDF version of Model Summaries